Geographic Characteristics & Strat. Position
The Landscape
Water & Soil


Name        Iran (Islamic Republic of)
and largest city
35°41′N 51°25′E
Spoken languages   - Persian (Farsi) - Armenian - Azeri 
    - Kurdish - Georgian - Mazandarani
    - Gilaki - Lurish - Turkmen - Arabic
    - Baloch - Neo-Aramaic
 Religion   Shia Islam (official)
 Demonym   Iranian, Persian
 Total Area   1,648,195 km2 (18th)
    636,372 sq mi
Water (%)   0.7
Population (2013 estimate)   77,176,930 (17th)
Density   48/km2 (162nd)
    124/sq mi
Time zone    IRST (UTC+3:30)
Summer (DST)   IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Date format   yyyy/mm/dd
Calling Code   +98
ISO 3166 code   IR
Internet TLD   ir


Iran (The Islamic Republic of) occupies a most prominent politico-economic position in the Middle East.

With a surface area of 1,648,000 square kilometers (636,300 square miles), in southwestern Asia. Country of mountains and deserts and such a strategic position, the country is truly unique, and enjoys many advantages.

Eastern Iran is dominated by a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. The plateau is surrounded by even higher mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Elburz to the north.

Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Iran also controls about a dozen islands in the Persian Gulf. More than 30 percent of its 4,770-mile (7,680-kilometre) boundary is seacoast.

After the collapse of the ex-USSR in 1991, Iran gained a more prominent position in the region, acting as a "bridge" that links the Middle Asian states in the north to the wealthy people south of the Persian Gulf who are both producers and consumers. It also provides for Middle Asia, a sea route, via the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Omen, to India, China and African countries.

Iran is cosily nestled in the middle of a market with 380 million consumers. It has direct land or sea routes to: Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, the Republic of Armenia, Independent Republic of Nakhichevan, Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Pakistan. It can provide transit routes linking the northern states - the ex-Soviet Republics - to the other states by sea and land, without the necessity of passage through a third country. It also joins the Caspian Sea to the Indian Ocean by road and railway.

Tehran (Teheran) is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation. Its official language, Farsi (Persian), is Indo-European. 

Iran has played an important role in the Middle East, as an imperial power and as a factor in rivalries between East and West Its strategic position and its vast resources, and holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.


The map does not show the southern islands of Hormozgan(#20 listed below):

1   Tehran   11   Hamadān       21   Sistan and Baluchestan
2   Qom   12   Kermanshah   22   Kermān
3    Markazi   13   Īlām   23   Yazd
4    Qazvin    14   Lorestān   24   Isfahan
5    Gīlān   15   Khūzestān   25   Semnān
6    Ardabil   16   Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari   26   Māzandarān
7    Zanjan   17   Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad   27   Golestān
8    East Azarbaijan   18   Bushehr   28   North Khorasan
9    West Azarbaijan   19   Fārs   29   Razavi Khorasan
10     Kurdistan       20    Hormozgān   30    South Khorasan